Picture of Early-20th century courtyard

How does archaeology challenge accepted views of the past?

Picture of Feature O, a stone

By the second decade of the nineteenth century, the expanding work force in Manhattan had created a severe housing shortage.

The city began to expand northward with landowners subdividing their houses into rental units. By mid-century Irish and German immigrants crowded into the tenements and apartments along Pearl and Baxter Streets. Feature O, a stone-lined privy, A illustration of tenement life during a heat wave (1879) contained trash belonging to the Irish tenants at 474 Pearl Street, the same address where the Hoffmans lived earlier in the century, and material from the ground floor saloon.

John Lysaight, who eventually became an alderman, ran a saloon at 474 Pearl from 1865 to 1873.

Picture of Richard Barry's saloon at 488 Pearl Street in 1858

In addition to glasses, liquor bottles, and a yellow ware spittoon, artifacts from the saloon included master ink bottles and smaller umbrella inks. Like other Irish saloons, Lysaight's was probably a place to write letters home and pick up mail, enter an ad in an Irish newspaper, take care of a business matter with the help of someone who knew the ropes, or get signed up for the next political campaign. The tenants' possessions reflect their participation in the consumer culture of the day and their efforts to conduct respectable lives in spite of the overcrowded housing and abysmal sanitary conditions.

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